Wednesday, August 1, 2007


1,028 Economists Oppose Protectionist Policies

In 1930, Congress passed and President Hoover signed into law the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. At the time, this protectionist measure was vigorously opposed by 1,028 of the nation’s top economists. They rightly predicted the tariffs would devastate the economy. And, in fact, the country subsequently plunged into the Great Depression.

Now some in Congress are considering ways to enact similar protectionist policies against China. Once again, 1,028 of America’s top economists, from all 50 states and top universities, have signed the following petition sponsored by the Club for Growth in opposition to protectionist policies against China. In addition to many other prominent and well-respected economists, signatories include Nobel Laureates Finn Kydland, Edward Prescott, Thomas Schelling, and Vernon Smith.

Here's the 1930 petition (PDF) as it ran in the New York Times.

Here's the 2007 petition (PDF) as it ran in the Wall Street Journal this morning.

Concerning Protectionist Policies Against China

We, the undersigned, have serious concerns about the recent protectionist sentiments coming from Congress, especially with regards to China.

By the end of this year, China will most likely be the United States' second largest trading partner. Over the past six years, total trade between the two countries has soared, growing from $116 billion in 2000 to almost $343 billion in 2006. That's an average growth rate of almost 20% a year.

This marvelous growth has led to more affordable goods, higher productivity, strong job growth, and a higher standard of living for both countries. These economic benefits were made possible in large part because both China and the United States embraced freer trade.

As economists, we understand the vital and beneficial role that free trade plays in the world economy. Conversely, we believe that barriers to free trade destroy wealth and benefit no one in the long run. Because of these fundamental economic principles, we sign this letter to advise Congress against imposing retaliatory trade measures against China.

There is no foundation in economics that supports punitive tariffs. China currently supplies American consumers with inexpensive goods and low-interest rate loans. Retaliatory tariffs on China are tantamount to taxing ourselves as a punishment. Worse, such a move will likely encourage China to impose its own tariffs, increasing the possibility of a futile and harmful trade war. American consumers and businesses would pay the price for this senseless war through higher prices, worse jobs, and reduced economic growth.

We urge Congress to discard any plans for increased protectionism, and instead urge lawmakers to work towards fostering stronger global economic ties through free trade.

For a list of the signers, see below the fold. The affiliations are for identification purposes only.

Full Name and Affiliation
Burton A. Abrams, University of Delaware
Daron Acemoglu, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Richard Adelstein, Wesleyan University
Douglas K. Adie, Ohio University
Michael Adler, Columbia University
Richard Agnello, University of Delaware
Dennis J. Aigner, University of California, Irvine
William Albrecht, University of Iowa
Alberto Alesina, Harvard University
Donald Alexander, Western Michigan University
Constantine Alexandrakis, University of Massachusetts at Dartmouth
Heitor Almeida, New York University
Ryan C. Amacher, University of Texas at Arlington
Attila Ambrus, Harvard University
Alex Anas, State University of New York at Buffalo
James E. Anderson, Boston College
Ralph Andreano, University of Wisconsin
John J. Antel, University of Houston
Pol Antras, Harvard University
Dennis R. Appleyard, Davidson College
J.J. Arias, Georgia College
Dick Armey, Former U.S. House Majority Leader
Richard Arnott, Boston College
Sonia Arrison, Pacific Research Institute
Mark Assibey-Yeboah, University of Tennessee
Leonardo Auernheimer, Texas A&M University
George R. Averitt, Purdue University North Central
David Backus, New York University
Howard Baetjer, Jr., Towson University
Dean Baim, Pepperdine University
Nicholas Balabkins, Lehigh University
Robert E. Baldwin, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Mina Baliamoune-Lutz, University of North Florida
James T. Bang, Virginia Military Institute
Shuming Bao, University of Michigan
William J. Barber, Wesleyan University
Andrew Barkley, Kansas State University
William Barnett II, Loyola University New Orleans
Humberto Barreto, Wabash College
John L. Barry, American Investment Services, Inc.
Ernest Bartell, University of Notre Dame
James Bartkus, Xavier University of Louisiana
Timothy R. Bastian, Creighton University
Atin Basu, Virginia Military Institute
Christopher F. Baum, Boston College
Chip Baumgardner, Pennsylvania College of Technology
Nathaniel Baum-Snow, Brown University
Carson W. Bays, East Carolina University
Stacie Beck, University of Delaware
Charles M. Becker, Duke University
Teresa Beckham Gramm, Rhodes College
Steven Beckman, University of Colorado, Denver
Jere R. Behrman, University of Pennsylvania
Don Bellante, University of South Florida
Pedro Belli, Independent Consultant, Virginia
Valerie R. Bencivenga, University of Texas at Austin
James T. Bennett, George Mason University
Bruce L. Benson, Florida State University
Jeffrey H. Bergstrand, University of Notre Dame
Colleen Berndt, San Jose State University
Daniel Mark Bernhardt, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
David J. Berri, California State University, Bakersfield
S. Keith Berry, Hendrix College
John Berthoud, George Washington University
Roger Betancourt, University of Maryland
Caroline M. Betts, University of Southern California
Mark Bils, University of Rochester
John A. Bishop, East Carolina University
David E. Black, University of Delaware
Calvin Blackwell, College of Charleston
Emily Blanchard, University of Virginia
Robert A. Blewett, St. Lawrence University
Walter Block, Loyola University New Orleans
Brock Blomberg, Claremont McKenna College
Elizabeth C. Bogan, Princeton University
William T. Bogart, York College of Pennsylvania
Cecil E. Bohanon, Ball State University
Henning Bohn, University of California, Santa Barbara
Jean Boivin, Columbia Business School
David Boldt, University of West Georgia
Gary Bolton, Penn State University
Eric Bond, Vanderbilt University
John P. Bonin, Wesleyan University
Catherine Bonser-Neal, Indiana University
Donald R. Booth, Chapman University
Thomas E. Borcherding, Claremont Graduate University
George Borts, Brown University
Samuel Bostaph, University of Dallas
Barry Bosworth, Brookings Institution
Donald J. Boudreaux, George Mason University
Athanasios D. Bournakis, University of Illinois at Chicago
Scott Bradford, Brigham Young University
Reuven Brenner, Match Strategic Partners
Genevieve Briand, Eastern Washington University
Gregory Brock, Georgia Southern University
Wayne Brough, FreedomWorks
George Brower, Moravian College
Philip H. Brown, Colby College
Jeffrey R. Brown, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Gardner Brown, University of Washington
James Bruehler, Eastern Illinois University
James Bryan, Manhattanville College
Erik Brynjolfsson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Gabriella Bucci, DePaul University
Richard C.K. Burdekin, Claremont McKenna College
John D. Burger, Loyola College in Maryland
Mark L. Burkey, NCA&T State University
Joyce Burnette, Wabash College
Mark L. Burton, University of Tennessee - Knoxville
James L. Butkiewicz, University of Delaware
William N. Butos, Trinity College
Ricardo J. Caballero, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
John Cai, Massachusetts Division of Health Care Finance and Policy
Peter T. Calcagno, College of Charleston
Bruce Caldwell, U. of North Carolina-Greensboro
Joseph Calhoun, Florida State University
Charles Calomiris, Columbia University
Colin D. Campbell, Dartmouth College
Victor Canto, La Jolla Economics
Matthew B. Canzoneri, Georgetown University
Bryan Caplan, George Mason University
Tony Caporale, Ohio University
Art Carden, Rhodes College
James Cardon, Brigham Young University
Bo Carlsson, Case Western Reserve University
Wayne Carroll, University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire
Robert B. Catlett, Emporia State University
Jill Caviglia-Harris, Salisbury University
Dustin Chambers, Salisbury University
Emily Chamlee-Wright, Beloit College
Gene Chang, University of Toledo, Ohio
V.V. Chari, University of Minnesota
Kevin W. Chauvin, University of Kansas
Hong-Yi Chen, Soka University of America
Yongmin Chen, University of Colorado at Boulder
Yan Chen, University of Michigan
Lein-Lein Chen, University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Yu-chin Chen, University of Washington
Chu-yuan Cheng, Ball State University
Joseph F. Chiang, State University of New York, Oneonta
P.A. Chiappori, Columbia University
Ken Chilton, Lindenwood University
Aimee Chin, University of Houston
Charles R. Chittle, Bowling Green State University
C.Y. Choi, University of Texas at Arlington
Gregory Chow, Princeton University
Carl F. Christ, Johns Hopkins University
Harold R. Christensen, Centenary College of Louisiana
Lawrence R. Cima, John Carroll University
Victor V. Claar, Hope College
J.R. Clark, University of Tennessee
Don P. Clark, University of Tennessee
Jim Clark, Wichita State University
Gary E. Clayton, Northern Kentucky University
Gian Luca Clementi, New York University
R. Morris Coats, Nicholls State University
Warren Coats, Retired, IMF
Jim Cobbe, Florida State University
John P. Cochran, Metropolitan State College of Denver
Philip R.P. Coelho, Ball State University
John Cogan, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Lloyd Cohen, George Mason University
Boyd D. Collier, Tarleton State University
Robert Collinge, University of Texas at San Antonio
Diego Comin, Harvard University
Paul M. Comolli, University of Kansas
John Conant, Indiana State University
William B. Conerly, Conerly Consulting LLC
Michelle Connolly, Duke University
Paul Coomes, University of Louisville
Lee Coppock, University of Virginia
Roy Cordato, John Locke Foundation
Christopher Cornwell, University of Georgia
Jay Corrigan, Kenyon College
Michael Cosgrove, The Econoclast, Inc.
Chad D. Cotti, University of South Carolina
Tyler Cowen, George Mason University
Donald Cox, Boston College
Christopher Coyne, West Virginia University
Erik Craft, University of Richmond
Eleanor D. Craig, University of Delaware
W. Mark Crain, Lafayette College
Nicole V. Crain, Lafayette College
Peter Cramton, University of Maryland
David Cuberes, Clemson University
Kirby R. Cundiff, Northeastern State University
Maria N. DaCosta, University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire
Lisa Daniels, Washington College
Jerry W. Dauterive, Loyola University New Orleans
Larry Davidson, Indiana University
Antony Davies, Duquesne University
Steven Davis, University of Chicago
Robert Deacon, University of California, Santa Barbara
John Deal, Manchester College
Alan V. Deardorff, University of Michigan
Clarence R. Deitsch, Ball State University
Robert Dekle, University of Southern California
Gregory Delemeester, Marietta College
Stephen Dempsey, University of Vermont
Harold Demsetz, University of California, Los Angeles
Yongheng Deng, University of Southern California
Dave Denslow, University of Florida
Arthur T. Denzau, Claremont Graduate University
Michael DePrano, University of Southern California
Robert Derrell, Manhattanville College
Frederick W. Derrick, Loyola College in Maryland
Joseph S. DeSalvo, University of South Florida
Jeff DeSimone, University of Texas at Arlington
Arthur M. Diamond, Jr., University of Nebraska at Omaha
William Dickens, University of Maryland
Alan E. Dillingham, St. Mary's College of Maryland
Suzanne Discenza, Metropolitan State College of Denver
John L. Dobra, University of Nevada
Bruce R. Domazlicky, Southeast Missouri State University
John J. Donohue, Yale University
Christopher Douglas, University of Michigan-Flint
Douglas Downing, Seattle Pacific University
Allan Drazen, University of Maryland
Daniel Drezner, Tufts University
Robin Dubin, Case Western Reserve University
Dean Dudley, U.S. Military Academy at West Point
Floyd H. Duncan, Virginia Military Institute
Dirk Early, Southwestern University
William Easterly, New York University and The Brookings Institution
Avraham Ebenstein, Harvard University
Woody Eckard, University of Colorado at Denver
Alejandra Cox Edwards, California State University, Long Beach
Mary E. Edwards, St. Cloud State University
Frank Egan, Trinity College
John B. Egger, Towson University
Karen Eggleston, Stanford University
Barry Eichengreen, University of California, Berkeley
Sharon Eicher, Bethel College
Robert B. Ekelund, Auburn University
Mahmoud El-Gamal, Rice University
Larry Ellis, Appalachian State University
Randall Ellis, Boston University
Dennis F. Ellis, University of Michigan-Flint
Frank Elston, Metropolitan State College of Denver
Jeffrey Ely, Northwestern University
Kenneth G. Elzinga, University of Virginia
Ross B. Emmett, Michigan State University
Stephen J. Entin, Institute for Research on the Economics of Taxation
Can Erbil, Brandeis University
Richard E. Ericson, East Carolina University
Paul Evans, Ohio State University
Tom A. Evans, University of Chicago
Robert Eyler, Sonoma State University
Giovanni Facchini, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
Eugene F. Fama, University of Chicago
Hanming Fang, Yale University
W. Ken Farr, Georgia College & State University
Robert C. Feenstra, University of California, Davis
Susan K. Feigenbaum, University of Missouri-St. Louis
Susan Feinberg, Rutgers University
J. Peter Ferderer, Macalester College
Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde, University of Pennsylvania
Gary Fethke, University of Iowa
Merton Finkler, Lawrence University
Hartmut Fischer, University of San Francisco
Price Fishback, University of Arizona
Edward L. Fitzsimmons, Creighton University
Mark Flannery, University of Florida
David Flath, North Carolina State University
Belton M. Fleisher, Ohio State University
Arthur A. Fleisher III, Metropolitan State College of Denver
Jeff Fleming, Rice University
Curtis Florence, Emory University
Oscar Flores, Minnesota State University Moorhead
Hisham Foad, San Diego State University
Fred E. Foldvary, Santa Clara University
Stephen Foreman, Robert Morris University
Brian Forst, American University
Bruce A. Forster, University of Nebraska at Kearney
Michelle Michot Foss, University of Texas at Austin
Virginia Grace France, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Murray Z. Frank, University of Minnesota
Peter Frank, Wingate University
Michele Fratianni, Indiana University
A. Myrick Freeman III, Bowdoin College
Harold Fried, Union College
Philip Friedman, Golden Gate University
Joseph Friedrich, Saint Johnâ??s University
Alan Frishman, Hobart and William Smith Colleges
Kenneth C. Froewiss, New York University
Marc Fusaro, East Carolina University
Lewis R. Gale, Weber State University
Gary Galles, Pepperdine University
Song Gao, Stony Brook University
Song Gao, Western Michigan University
B. Delworth Gardner, Brigham Young University
Bruce Gardner, University of Maryland
John Garen, University of Kentucky
Ted Gayer, Georgetown University
Rick Geddes, Cornell University
Aaron J. Gellman, Northwestern University
Robert Genetski, Independent Economist, Michigan
William D. Gerdes, Clarke College
Linda S. Ghent, Eastern Illinois University
J. Fred Giertz, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Adam Gifford, Jr., California State University, Northridge
Herbert Gintis, Santa Fe Institute
David Gitlitz, Trend Macrolytics LLC
Richard Glendening, Central College
Robert Godby, University of Wyoming
Brian Goff, Western Kentucky University
Bill Goffe, State University of New York at Oswego
Stephan F. Gohmann, University of Louisville
Scott Goldsmith, University of Alaska Anchorage
Claudio Gonzalez-Vega, Ohio State University
John Goodman, National Center for Policy Analysis
Gita Gopinath, Harvard University
Richard L. Gordon, Penn State University
Roger Gordon, University of California, San Diego
Peter Gordon, University of Southern California
Ernest Goss, Creighton University
Eric S. Graber, Brandeis University
Richard Grabowski, Southern Illinois University
Monty Graham, Peterson Institute for International Economics
Wendy Gramm, Former Chair of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission
Phil Gramm, Former U.S. Senator
Marshall Gramm, Rhodes College
Philip E. Graves, University of Colorado at Boulder
Thomas Grennes, North Carolina State University
John D. Grether, Northwood University
Paul W. Grimes, Mississippi State University
Daniel M. Gropper, Auburn University
Gerald Groshek, University of Redlands
Adam J. Grossberg, Trinity College
Peter Z. Grossman, Butler University
Andrew Guzman, University of California, Berkeley
James Gwartney, Florida State University
R.W. Hafer, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Robert E. Hall, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
William Hallagan, Washington State University
Arne Hallam, Iowa State University
Robert Halvorsen, University of Washington
John Ham, University of Southern California
Daniel S. Hamermesh, University of Texas at Austin
David Hammes, University of Hawaii at Hilo
Mike Hammock, Rhodes College
Bing Han, University of Texas at Austin
Gary D. Hansen, University of California, Los Angeles
Lars Peter Hansen, University of Chicago
Robin Hanson, George Mason University
John R. Hanson II, Texas A&M University
Eric Hanushek, Stanford University
Stephen Happel, Arizona State University
Arnold C. Harberger, University of California, Los Angeles
Ronald M. Harstad, University of Missouri
Oliver Hart, Harvard University
James C. Hartigan, University of Oklahoma
Iftekhar Hasan, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Seid Hassan, Murray State University
M. Kabir Hassan, University of New Orleans
Kevin Hassett, American Enterprise Institute
William R. Hauk, University of South Carolina
Thomas W. Hazlett, George Mason University
Ping He, University of Illinois at Chicago
Geoff Heal, Columbia Business School
Scott Hein, Texas Tech University
Ron Heiner, George Mason University
Lorens Helmchen, University of Illinois at Chicago
John Helmuth, University of Michigan-Flint
David R. Henderson, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Peter Blair Henry, Stanford University
Benjamin E. Hermalin, University of California, Berkeley
Robert Stanley Herren, North Dakota State University
Gregory D. Hess, Claremont McKenna College
Peter Hess, Davidson College
Robert Higgs, The Independent Institute
P.J. Hill, University of Alaska Anchorage
Peter J. Hill, Wheaton College
Evan Hillebrand, University of Kentucky
Rod Hissong, University of Texas at Arlington
Robert F. Hodgin, University of Houston-Clear Lake
Robert J. Hodrick, Columbia University
Paul Hoffmeister, Bretton Woods Research
Randall G. Holcombe, Florida State University
Don Holley, Boise State University
Duncan M. Holthausen, North Carolina State University
Adam Honig, Amherst College
Abigail S. Hornstein, Wesleyan University
John Horowitz, Ball State University
George Horwich, Purdue University
Steven Horwitz, St. Lawrence University
Takeo Hoshi, University of California, San Diego
Douglas A. Houston, University of Kansas
John S. Howe, University of Missouri-Columbia
William Hoyt, University of Kentucky
Yu Hsing, Southeastern Louisiana University
R. Glenn Hubbard, Columbia University
Glenn Hueckel, Pomona College
C. James Hueng, Western Michigan University
Jeffrey Rogers Hummel, San Jose State University
David Hummels, Purdue University
Bruce Hutchinson, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga
Barry Ickes, Penn State University
Sanford Ikeda, Purchase College, SUNY
Andrei Illarionov, CATO Institute
Hiroyuki Imai, Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania
Scott Imberman, University of Houston
Christopher R. Inama, Golden Gate University
Robert P. Inman, University of Pennsylvania
F. Owen Irvine, Michigan State University
Joyce Jacobsen, Wesleyan University
Brian J. Jacobsen, Wisconsin Lutheran College
Joseph M. Jadlow, Oklahoma State University
Dennis W. Jansen, Texas A&M University
Gary Jefferson, Brandeis University
Michael C. Jensen, Harvard University
Bang Jeon, Drexel University
Panle Ji, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Yi Jin, University of Kansas
Pierre Jinghong Liang, Carnegie Mellon University
Daniel K.N. Johnson, Colorado College
Clark Johnson, Independent Economist, New Jersey
Roger Johnson, Messiah College
Paul Johnson, University of Alaska Anchorage
Jason Johnston, University of Pennsylvania
Douglas H. Joines, University of Southern California
Garett Jones, George Mason University
Benjamin F. Jones, Northwestern University
Kenneth L. Judd, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Leo H. Kahane, California State University, East Bay
Carl P. Kaiser, Washington and Lee University
Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan, University of Houston
Joseph P. Kalt, Harvard University
Mark S. Kamlet, Carnegie Mellon University
Yener Kandogan, University of Michigan-Flint
Tim Kane, Heritage Foundation
Steven N. Kaplan, University of Chicago
Jonathan M. Karpoff, University of Washington
David Kaserman, Auburn University
Myron B. Katz, Portland State University
Mark Kazarosian, Stonehill College
J.R. Kearl, Brigham Young University
Adrienne A. Kearney, University of Maine
Maryann O. Keating, Indiana University, South Bend
Raymond J. Keating, Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council
Barry Keating, University of Notre Dame
Michael A. Kennedy, Office of Economic Analysis, State of Oregon
Erasmus Kersting, Texas A&M University
Jyoti Khanna, Colgate University
Naveen Khanna, Michigan State University
Jacqueline Khorassani, Marietta College
Nicholas Kiefer, Cornell University
Sang W. Kim, Hood College
Yong Kim, University of Southern California
Miles Kimball, University of Michigan
Thomas C. Kinnaman, Bucknell University
David M. Kiriazis, Frostburg State University
Robin Klay, Hope College
Daniel Klein, George Mason University
Andrew N. Kleit, Penn State University
Pete Klenow, Stanford University
Arnold Kling, Independent Economist, Maryland
James V. Koch, Old Dominion University
Paul R. Koch, Olivet Nazarene University
Meir G. Kohn, Dartmouth College
Marek Kolar, Delta College
Roger Koppl, Fairleigh Dickinson University
Faik A. Koray, Louisiana State University
Yrjo Koskinen, Boston University
Lea-Rachel Kosnik, University of Missouri, St. Louis
Laurence J. Kotlikoff, Boston University
Stephan Kroll, California State University, Sacramento
Corinne M. Krupp, Duke University
Larry Kudlow, Kudlow & Company, LLC
Michael Kuehlwein, Pomona College
Kishore G. Kulkarni, Metropolitan State College of Denver
Vikram Kumar, Davidson College
Timur Kuran, University of Southern California
Patricia Kuzyk, Washington State University
Finn Kydland, University of California, Santa Barbara (Nobel Laureate)
Kern O. Kymn, West Virginia University
Oldrich Kyn, Boston University
Sumner La Croix, University of Hawaii
Arthur B. Laffer, Laffer Associates
Sajal Lahiri, Southern Illinois University
Michael L. Lahr, Rutgers University
Mun Lai, California State University, Bakersfield
Deepak Lal, University of California, Los Angeles
Daniel Landau, University of Connecticut
John Landon, Analysis Group, Inc.
Steven E. Landsburg, University of Rochester
Fabian Lange, Yale University
George Langelett, South Dakota State University
Richard N. Langlois, University of Connecticut
John S. Lapp, North Carolina State University
James Larriviere, Spring Hill College
William D. Lastrapes, University of Georgia
Wolfram Latsch, University of Washington
Marc T. Law, University of Vermont
Robert A. Lawson, Capital University
John Leahy, New York University
Alex Lebedinsky, Western Kentucky University
Lung-fei Lee, Ohio State University
Dwight R. Lee, University of Georgia
Michael A. Leeds, Temple University
Robert M. Leekley, Illinois Wesleyan University
Peter T. Leeson, George Mason University
Tom Lehman, Indiana Wesleyan University
Thomas M. Lenard, The Progress & Freedom Foundation
David Letson, University of Miami
John Levendis, Loyola University New Orleans
Stanford L. Levin, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville
Philip I. Levy, American Enterprise Institute
Daniel Levy, Emory University and Bar-Ilan University
Joshua J. Lewer, West Texas A&M University
Peter Lewin, University of Texas at Dallas
Hui Li, Eastern Illinois University
Haizheng Li, Georgia Institute of Technology
Yan Li, University of Iowa
Jun Li, University of New Hampshire
Ihsuan Li, Wesleyan College
Stan Liebowitz, University of Texas at Dallas
James D. Likens, Pomona College
Dean R. Lillard, Cornell University
David L. Lindauer, Wellesley College
Charles R. Link, University of Delaware
Victor D. Lippit, University of California, Riverside
Tung Liu, Ball State University
Zheng Liu, Emory University
Hong Liu, Washington University in St. Louis
Lezheng Liu, Western Michigan University
Ming Chien Lo, St. Cloud State University
Anthony T. Lo Sasso, University of Illinois at Chicago
Alan Lockard, St. Lawrence University
George C. Lodge, Harvard University
Robert Looney, Naval Postgraduate School
Edward J. Lopez, San Jose State University
Peter Lorentzen, University of California, Berkeley
Mary Lovely, Syracuse University
Bruce H. Lubich, University of Maryland University College
Volodymyr Lugovskyy , University of Memphis
William Luksetich, St. Cloud State University
John Lunn, Hope College
Max Lupul, California State University, Northridge
Donald L. Luskin, Trend Macrolytics LLC
R. Ashley Lyman, University of Idaho
Lynn MacDonald, St. Cloud State University
Glenn MacDonald, Washington University in St. Louis
DW MacKenzie, State University of New York at Plattsburgh
Joseph P. Magaddino, California State University, Long Beach
Chris Magee, Bucknell University
Giovanni Maggi, Yale University
Robert S. Main, Butler University
Anup Malani, University of Chicago
Burton G. Malkiel, Princeton University
Yuri N. Maltsev, Carthage College
Markos J. Mamalakis, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
N. Gregory Mankiw, Harvard University
Edmund H. Mantell, Pace University
Richard D. Marcus, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Mindy Marks, University of California, Riverside
Michael L. Marlow, California Polytechnic State University
Lawrence C. Marsh, University of Notre Dame
Mike Martin, New Mexico State University
Deryl W. Martin, Tennessee Tech University
Gabriel X. Martinez, Ave Maria University
Keith E. Maskus, University of Colorado at Boulder
Joseph R. Mason, Drexel University
Robert Mason, Georgia Gwinnett College
Scott E. Masten, University of Michigan
Dale Matcheck, Northwood University
William F. Maxwell, University of Arizona
David L. May, Oklahoma City University
Walter J. Mayer, University of Mississippi
Diya Mazumder, Soka University of America
John McArthur, Wofford College
Bennett McCallum, Carnegie Mellon University
Deirdre McCloskey, University of Illinois at Chicago
James E. McClure, Ball State University
Rachel McCulloch, Brandeis University
John McDermott, University of South Carolina
Judy McDonald, Lehigh University
Michael McElroy, North Carolina State University
Joseph P. McGarrity, University of Central Arkansas
Patrick A. McGuire, Hobart and William Smith Colleges
Joseph A. McKinney, Baylor University
Ronald McKinnon, Stanford University
Walter W. McMahon, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Doug McMillin, Louisiana State University
Robert F. McNown, University of Colorado at Boulder
Lawrence J. McQuillan, Pacific Research Institute
Tom Means, San Jose State University
Roger E. Meiners, University of Texas at Arlington
Jose A. Mendez, Arizona State University
John Merrifield, University of Texas at San Antonio
Dan Messerschmidt, Lynchburg College
Hanfu Mi, State University of New York, Oneonta
Hugo M. Mialon, Emory University
Peter Mieszkowski, Rice University
John L. Mikesell, Indiana University, Bloomington
Marc A. Miles, Former Editor, Index of Economic Freedom
Paul Milgrom, Stanford University
Martin Milkman, Murray State University
Phillip Miller, Minnesota State University Mankato
Richard A. Miller, Wesleyan University
Stephen C. Miller, Western Carolina University
James C. Miller III, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Laurence Miners, Fairfield University
Cathy Miners, Fairfield University
Maria Minniti, Babson College
James Mintert, Kansas State University
Jeffrey A. Miron, Harvard University
David M. Mitchell, Missouri State University
David T. Mitchell, University of South Alabama
Shannon K. Mitchell, Virginia Commonwealth University
Wilson Mixon, Berry College
A. Mushfiq Mobarak, Yale University
Robert Moffitt, Johns Hopkins University
Daniel Monchuk, University of Southern Mississippi
James Moncur, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Carl B. Montano, Lamar University
Ronald L. Moomaw, Oklahoma State University
Robert L. Moore, Occidental College
Adrian Moore, Reason Foundation
John C. Moorhouse, Wake Forest University
Sol Moosa, California State University, Chico
Marie T. Mora, University of Texas - Pan American
James Morley, Washington University in St. Louis
Gayle Morris, Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
Stephen E. Morris, Princeton University
Andrew Morriss, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Saeed Mortazavi, Humboldt State University
Shannon Mudd, Ursinus College
Peter Mueser, University of Missouri - Columbia
Donald J. Mullineaux, University of Kentucky
Michael Munger, Duke University
Matthew N. Murray, University of Tennessee
David B. Mustard, University of Georgia
Richard F. Muth, Emory University
John Mutti, Grinnell College
Ramon H. Myers, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Michael R. Myler, Mount Union College
Darek Nalle, University of Idaho
Ronald M. Nate, Brigham Young University - Idaho
Paul A. Natke, Central Michigan University
Frank J. Navratil, John Carroll University
Thomas J. Nechyba, Duke University
George R. Neumann, University of Iowa
Craig Newmark, North Carolina State University
Jinlan Ni, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Walter Nicholson, Amherst College
Pamela Nickless, University of North Carolina at Asheville
James F. Nieberding, LECG, L.L.C.
Scott Niederjohn, Lakeland College
Robert H. Nigohosian, Salt Lake Community College
Thomas O. Nitsch, Creighton University
Grover Glenn Norquist, Americans for Tax Reform
Seth W. Norton, Wheaton College
Farrokh Nourzad, Marquette University
John V.C. Nye, George Mason University and Washington University in St. Louis
Felix Oberholzer-Gee , Harvard University
Anthony Patrick O'Brien, Lehigh University
Filippo Occhino, Rutgers University
Eduardo M. Ochoa, Sonoma State University
Lee Ohanian, University of California, Los Angeles
David J. O'Hara, Metropolitan State University
Reza Oladi, Utah State University
Edgar O. Olsen, University of Virginia
Josephine E. Olson, University of Pittsburgh
Peter F. Orazem, Iowa State University
Lydia Ortega, San Jose State University
Evan Osborne, Wright State University
Carol L. Osler, Brandeis University
Min Ouyang, University of California, Irvine
Mark F. Owens, Middle Tennessee State University
Gerard Padró i Miquel, Stanford University
Karen Palasek, John Locke Foundation
Arvind Panagariya, Columbia University
Antu Panini Murshid, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Albert Park, University of Michigan
Randall Parker, East Carolina University
Elliott Parker, University of Nevada, Reno
Allen M. Parkman, University of New Mexico
Donald O. Parsons, George Washington University
E.C. Pasour, Jr., North Carolina State University
Elena Pastorino, University of Iowa
Hugh Patrick, Columbia University
Daniel A. Pavsek, Shenandoah University
Sandra Peart, University of Richmond
Gary M. Pecquet, Central Michigan University
Sam Peltzman, University of Chicago
Joseph Pelzman, George Washington University
Pietro F. Peretto, Duke University
Dwight H. Perkins, Harvard University
Mark J. Perry, University of Michigan-Flint
Dorothy Petersen, Washington University in St. Louis
Brian J. Peterson, Central College
Steven Peterson, University of Idaho
Charlotte D. Phelps, Temple University
Kerk L. Phillips, Brigham Young University
Youyu Phillips, Keystone College
Gordon M. Phillips, University of Maryland
Geoffrey M. Pofahl, Michigan State University
Mattias Polborn, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Xun Pomponio, St. Olaf College
Joseph S. Pomykala, Towson University
Saharat Pongsree, Wesley College
Clayne L. Pope, Brigham Young University
Rulon Pope, Brigham Young University
Barry M. Popkin, University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
Barry Poulson, University of Colorado at Boulder
Mohammed Pourheydarian, Lindsey Wilson College
Gyan Pradhan, Westminster College
Edward C. Prescott, Arizona State University (Nobel Laureate)
R.L. Promboin, University of Maryland University College
Bashir A. Qasmi, South Dakota State University
Xuezheng Qin, State University of New York at Buffalo
Zhongjun Qu, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Gary Quinlivan, Saint Vincent College
Richard W. Rahn, Institute for Global Economic Growth
Reza Ramazani, Saint Michael's College
Taghi Ramin, William Paterson University
Adriano Rampini, Duke University
Gustav Ranis, Yale University
Priya Ranjan, University of California, Irvine
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Surekha Rao, Indiana University, Northwest
John Rapp, University of Dayton
Eric Rasmusen, Indiana University
Farhad Rassekh, University of Hartford
Gordon Rausser, University of California, Berkeley
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Robert Rebelein, Vassar College
William Reece, West Virginia University
David Reiley, University of Arizona
George Reisman, Pepperdine University
Morgan O. Reynolds, Texas A&M University
Bruce Reynolds, University of Virginia
Edward M. Rice, University of Washington
James A. Richardson, Louisiana State University
Christine Ries, Georgia Institute of Technology
Raymond Riezman, University of Iowa
Salvador Rivera, State University of New York
Michael Rizzo, American Institute for Economic Research
Mario J. Rizzo, New York University
Kenneth Roberts, Southwestern University
John Roberts, Stanford University
David Robinson, Duke University
Malcolm Robinson, Thomas More College
Andres Rodriguez-Clare, Penn State University
Gerard Roland, University of California, Berkeley
David Romer, University of California, Berkeley
Antonio L. Rosado, Puerto Rico Economists Association
Andrew Rose, University of California, Berkeley
Harvey S. Rosen, Princeton University
Joshua L. Rosenbloom, University of Kansas
David R. Ross, Bryn Mawr College
Esteban Rossi-Hansberg, Princeton University
Gregory Rosston, Stanford University
Philip Rothman, East Carolina University
James Roumasset, University of Hawaii
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Scott Rozelle, Stanford University
Paul Rubin, Emory University
Juan Rubio-Ramirez, Duke University
Roy J. Ruffin, University of Houston
Kim J. Ruhl, University of Texas
Christopher J. Ruhm, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Mark Rush, University of Florida
Cliff Russell, Vanderbilt University
John Rutledge, Rutledge Capital
Andrew Rutten, Stanford University
Klara Sabirianova Peter, Georgia State University
Haideh Salehi-Esfahani, University of Washington
Michael Salemi, University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
Alberto Salvo, Northwestern University
Kevin D. Salyer, University of California, Davis
Saras Sarasvathy, University of Virginia
Hyman Sardy, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York
Raymond Sauer, Clemson University
Thomas R. Saving, Texas A&M University
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W. Charles Sawyer, Texas Christian University
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Peter V. Schaeffer, West Virginia University
D. Eric Schansberg, Indiana University
Thomas C. Schelling, University of Maryland (Nobel Laureate)
Karl Schmedders, Northwestern University
Ronald M. Schmidt, University of Rochester
Paul Schoofs, Ripon College
Edward J. Schumacher, Trinity University
Mike Schuyler, Institute for Research on the Economics of Taxation
Stewart J. Schwab, Cornell University
Brian Scott, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Carol R. Scotton, Knox College
John Seater, North Carolina State University
Michael C. Seeborg, Illinois Wesleyan University
Robert D. Seeley, Wilkes University
Carlos Seiglie, Rutgers University
Barry J. Seldon, University of Texas at Dallas
Sharmistha Self, Missouri State University
George Selgin, University of Georgia
Tinni Sen, Virginia Military Institute
Gautam Sethi, Bard College
Stephen L. Shapiro, University of North Florida
Matthew Shapiro, University of Southern California
James Shaw, University of San Francisco
Dennis Sheehan, Penn State University
Ian Sheldon, Ohio State University
Cameron Shelton, Wesleyan University
Victor Shih, Northwestern University
A. Gary Shilling, A. Gary Shilling & Co., Inc.
Robert Shimer, University of Chicago
Jason Shogren, University of Wyoming
Mark H. Showalter, Brigham Young University
William F. Shughart II, University of Mississippi
George Shultz, Former U.S. Secretary of Treasury
Tyler Shumway, University of Michigan
Clemens Sialm, University of Texas at Austin
Joseph Sicilian, University of Kansas
Calvin Siebert, University of Iowa
Vlad Signorelli, Bretton Woods Research
Stephen J. Silver, The Citadel
John Silvia, Wachovia Corporation
Nicole Simpson, Colgate University
Geok H. Simpson, University of Texas - Pan American
Kalyan Singhal, University of Baltimore
Charles Skipton, University of Tampa
Sita Slavov, Occidental College
Slavi T. Slavov, Pomona College
Vernon Smith, George Mason University (Nobel Laureate)
David M. Smith, Pepperdine University
William T. Smith, University of Memphis
Lones Smith, University of Michigan
Jeffrey Smith, University of Michigan
James F. Smith, University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill
Michael Smitka, Washington and Lee University
Jorge Soares, University of Delaware
Russell S. Sobel, West Virginia University
Allen Soltow, University of Tulsa
Shunfeng Song, University of Nevada
Robert Sonora, Fort Lewis College
Abdol Soofi, University of Wisconsin-Platteville
John C. Soper, John Carroll University
Bent Sorensen, University of Houston
Lawrence Southwick, Jr., University at Buffalo
Roger Sparks, Mills College
Mariana Spatareanu, Rutgers University
David E. Spencer, Brigham Young University
John A. Spry, University of St. Thomas
Richard G. Stahl, Louisiana State University
Robert W. Staiger, Stanford University
Judith Staley Brenneke, John Carroll University
Dean Stansel, Florida Gulf Coast University
John E. Stapleford, Eastern University
Jeffrey W. Steagall, University of North Florida
Mark Steckbeck, Campbell University
Frank Stephenson, Berry College
Robert M. Stern, University of Michigan
Derek Stimel, Menlo College
James Stock, Harvard University
Houston H. Stokes, University of Illinois at Chicago
Courtenay C. Stone, Ball State University
Thomas Stratmann, George Mason University
Mark Strazicich, Appalachian State University
Edward Stringham, San Jose State University
Kay E. Strong, Bowling Green State University
Richard L. Stroup, Montana State University
Brian K. Strow, Western Kentucky University
Marti G. Subrahmanyam, New York University
Yong Sui, University of Pittsburgh
Laddie Sula, Loras College
Paul J. Sullivan, National Defense University
Peter Summers, Texas Tech University
Scott Sumner, Bentley College
Wei Sun, University of Notre Dame
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Joseph A. Swanson, Northwestern University
Scott M. Swinton, Michigan State University
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Alan O. Sykes, Stanford University
Daniel A. Talley, Dakota State University
Robert Tamura, Clemson University
Dennis Tao Yang, Virginia Tech
John A. Tatom, Indiana State University
Jason E. Taylor, Central Michigan University
Larry Taylor, Lehigh University
William Taylor, New Mexico Highlands University
John B. Taylor, Stanford University
Alan M. Taylor, University of California, Davis
Peter Temin, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Rafael Tenorio, DePaul University
Michele Tertilt, Stanford University
Linda Tesar, University of Michigan
Teresa Tharp, Florida Southern College
Wade L. Thomas, State University of New York at Oneonta
Henry Thompson, Auburn University
Robert L. Thompson, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Erik Thorbecke, Cornell University
Guoqiang Tian, Texas A&M University
Alex Tokarev, The King's College
Robert Tollison, Clemson University
Mark Toma, University of Kentucky
Eugenia Toma, University of Kentucky
Robert Topel, University of Chicago
Robert K. Toutkoushian, Indiana University
Patricia Tovar, Brandeis University
Edward Tower, Duke University
Brian M. Trinque, University of Texas at Austin
Werner Troesken, George Mason University
Kenneth Troske, University of Kentucky
Leo Troy, Rutgers University
Marie Truesdell, Marian College
William N. Trumbull, West Virginia University
Grace Tsiang, University of Chicago
David G. Tuerck, Beacon Hill Institute, Suffolk University
Gordon Tullock, George Mason University
Chad Turner, Nicholls State University
Stephen Turnovsky, University of Washington
Charlotte Twight, Boise State University
Nicola Tynan, Dickinson College
Thomas S. Ulen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Kamal P. Upadhyaya , University of New Haven
Charles Upton, Kent State University
Beyza P. Ural, Syracuse University
Pedro Valenzuela Piffaut, Columbia University
T. Norman Van Cott, Ball State University
Hendrik Van den Berg, University of Nebraska
Kerry D. Vandell, University of California, Irvine
Hossein Varamini, Elizabethtown College
Richard Vedder, Ohio University and the American Enterprise Institute
Gustavo Ventura, University of Iowa
Galina Vereschagina, University of Iowa
Alan D. Viard, American Enterprise Institute
Brian Viard, Stanford University
Luis M. Viceira, Harvard University
Dietrich Vollrath, University of Houston
Christian A. Vossler, University of Tennessee
Tam Bang Vu, University of Hawaii - Hilo
Paul Wachtel, New York University
Romain Wacziarg, Stanford University
Richard E. Wagner, George Mason University
Douglas Walker, Georgia College
John F. Walker, Portland State University
Terrie Walmsley, Purdue University
William B. Walstad, University of Nebraska
John D. Walter, MacKinac Center for Public Policy
Jiang Wang, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Siyan Wang, University of Delaware
X.H. Wang, University of Missouri-Columbia
Holly Wang, Washington State University
Michael R. Ward, University of Texas at Arlington
Michael Wasylenko, Syracuse University
John J. Weatherby, University of Houston
Bruce G. Webb, Gordon College
Michael A. Webb, Xavier University
Elizabeth S. Webbink,
Jonathan Weinstein, Northwestern University
David Weiskopf, LECG, L.L.C.
Frank D. Weiss, Johns Hopkins University
Jeanne Wendel, University of Nevada, Reno
Brian Wesbury, First Trust Advisors
Christopher Westley, Jacksonville State University
Robert Whaples, Wake Forest University
Lawrence J. White, New York University
Lawrence H. White, University of Missouri - St. Louis
Charles Whiteman, University of Iowa
John Wicks, University of Montana, Missoula
Steve Wiggins, Texas A&M University
Tom Willett, Claremont Graduate College
Walter E. Williams, George Mason University
Arlington Williams, Indiana University, Bloomington
Jonathan Willner, Oklahoma City University
Doug Wills, University of Washington, Tacoma
Beth A. Wilson, Humboldt State University
Dennis Wilson, Western Kentucky University
Larry T. Wimmer, Brigham Young University
Robert Windle, University of Maryland
Michael Wiseman, George Washington University
Willard E. Witte, Indiana University, Bloomington
Michael Wohlgenant, North Carolina State University
Jan Wolcutt, Wichita State University
Larry Wolfenbarger, Macon State College
Hendrik Wolff, University of California, Berkeley
Gary Wolfram, Hillsdale College
Jaejoon Woo, DePaul University
Arthur G. Woolf, University of Vermont
John D. Worrall, Rutgers University
Brian Wright, University of California, Berkeley
Shu Wu, University of Kansas
Gene C. Wunder, Washburn University
Geng Xiao, The Brookings Institution
Zhenhui Xu, Georgia College & State University
Judy Xu, New York Institute of Technology
Yi Xu, Penn State University
Pavel Yakovlev, West Virginia University
Richard Yamarone, Argus Research Corp.
Jiawen Yang, George Washington University
Bill Yang, Georgia Southern University
Lixin Ye, Ohio State University
Bernard Yeung, New York University
Pai-Ling Yin, Harvard University
Jason Z. Yin, Seton Hall University
DeVon Yoho, Ball State University
Fred Young, Retired, CATO Institute Director
Eric Young, University of Virginia
Stephen D. Younger, Cornell University
Mutlu Yuksel, University of Houston
Ernest M. Zampelli, The Catholic University of America
Asghar Zardkoohi, Texas A&M University
John Zdanowicz, Florida International University
Richard Zecher, Investor Analytics, LLC
Richard O. Zerbe, University of Washington
Shufang Zhang, Harvard University
Jialin Zhang, Hoover Institution, Stanford University
Kevin H. Zhang, Illinois State University
Michael Zhang, New York City's Comptroller's Office
Qi (Harry) Zhang, Old Dominion University
Rui Zhao, State University of New York at Albany
Yang Zhao, University of Pittsburgh
Yuqing Zheng, Cornell University
Charles Z. Zheng, Iowa State University
Xun Zhou, University of California, Davis
Kate Zhou, University of Hawaii
Huizhong Zhou, Western Michigan University
Tao Zhu, Cornell University
Eric Zitzewitz, Stanford University
Asaf Zussman, Cornell University
Benjamin Zycher, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research
Zenon Zygmont, Western Oregon University

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